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In some Mahayana communities, for example, the strict law of karma the belief that virtuous actions create pleasure in the future and nonvirtuous actions create pain was modified to accommodate new emphases on the efficacy of ritual actions and devotional practices. This movement was influenced by gnostic and magical currents pervasive at that time, and its aim was to obtain spiritual liberation and purity more speedily.
Despite these vicissitudes , Buddhism did not abandon its basic principles. Instead, they were reinterpreted, rethought, and reformulated in a process that led to the creation of a great body of literature. These Pali texts have served as the basis for a long and very rich tradition of commentaries that were written and preserved by adherents of the Theravada community. Consequently, from the first sermon of the Buddha at Sarnath to the most recent derivations, there is an indisputable continuity—a development or metamorphosis around a central nucleus—by virtue of which Buddhism is differentiated from other religions.
Buddhism religion. Reynolds Joseph M. Kitagawa Hajime Nakamura Donald S. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. The Buddhist age of China began in the 4th century. This workshop together with the workshop in constitutes a milestone in this process. They listened and took notes of what the other had to say and even though they couldn't reply straight away, later on they would come back to points made earlier. I really liked that. However, I also thought it was interesting how at the end there was kind of a more animated discussion going on between Western and Eastern philosophers.
It made the meeting a bit more vivid, easier to follow. I was happy to recognize many topics and terms from what we studied and discussed in [the World Philosophies] class. This just goes to show how important communication and language is in philosophy. This also links a bit to Raud's article about how Japanese is different in structure to English.
Due to differences in language and meanings, different concepts do not come across as easily as others. I went to the second Toshiba meeting and … I was very intrigued by the amount of philosophers and the vibe of knowledge they had around them when I walked into the room. And I loved how during the discussion they were very attentive and sharp in responses, you could hear that they listened carefully to each other and answered with strongly constructed arguments.
And even if they did not agree with an explanation they were polite and open to try to understand the other point of view. I enjoyed witnessing this. The comment that most inspired me was made at one point by Rein Raud, when he said that people with equal assumptions may have even more difficulty starting a discussion than people who don't share the same assumptions, because "echo chambers don't create dialogue".
Tama Schreurs , UCU student. To be sure, those obstacles will not vanish overnight, but they will have to be tackled time and again. The discussion probed the depths of our cultural awareness, which made the meeting very rewarding, also for the audience. Thinking Japanese philosophy means being aware of its identity and cross-cultural dimensions, which means that the cultural identity of the thinker is at stake. Apart from Schopenhauer very few Western philosophers have been aware of the philosophical treasures that are hidden in non-Western thought and the reason might be the one-sided take on questions that were discussed during this conference, like what is rationality, what are ideas, what makes us tick and what is philosophy?
The answers to these questions can never be definitive but will have to be reconsidered in every cross-cultural philosophical project. They will continue to bring a deeper understanding of ourselves and our fellow human beings. I look forward to see the papers that will appear as a result of this gathering. Mark T. Kawakami , Esq. What made this dialogue possible —besides the generous grant by the Toshiba International Foundation and the time and passion invested in it by all involved?
Was it the shared assumptions about the function and importance of philosophy? Or was it the difference in assumptions that allowed us to escape our assumptions-bubble and encounter the other?
Was it our willingness to see the one in the many, or our love and capacity to leave the many as many, provided we have some sense of what the many might be? Can we make sense of them because we share a conceptual framework or perhaps because our philosophical conceptual frameworks have family resemblances to each other?